Reducing the effects of irrelevant information with cognitive feedback by William A. Durbin

Cover of: Reducing the effects of irrelevant information with cognitive feedback | William A. Durbin

Published by Naval Postgraduate School, Available from the National Technical Information Service in Monterey, Calif, Springfield, Va .

Written in English

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Edition Notes

Book details

ContributionsSengupta, Kishore
The Physical Object
Pagination72 p. ;
Number of Pages72
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL25518322M

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Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive Theses and Dissertations Thesis Collection Reducing the effects of irrelevant information with cognitive feedback. Decision makers are unable to identify and separate the effect of irrelevant information, thereby reducing the quality of decisions.

The propensity to overutilize irrelevant information is significant because present day work environments are increasingly rich in information.

Cognitive feedback is information on the how and why underlying Cited by: 7. The findings show that cognitive feedback on task performance can reduce learners’ anxiety and frustration while working with complex tasks.

Moreover, by providing feedback on learners’ performance on a set of key components of the task, the proposed approach has shown promising effects on improving learners’ diagnostic : Bei Yuan, Minhong Wang, Minhong Wang, Jeroen van Merriënboer, Xu Tao, Andre Kushniruk, Jun Peng, Jun. Cognitive feedback is information on the how and why underlying the accuracy.

The results show that subjects provided with cognitive feedback attained significantly better identification of irrelevant information than those relying solely on outcome feedback. The use of cognitive feedback also resulted in greater accuracy and cognitive control.

irrelevant information can disrupt cognitive activity. In these sit-uations, the cognitive system must find a way to reduce the impact. Testing and feedback effects on. This presents a comprehensive review of the empirical literature bearing on the effects of cognitive feedback (CFB) on multiple measures of performance.

CFB refers to the process of presenting the person information about the relations in the environment (task information [TI]), relations perceived by the person (cognitive information [CI]), and relations between the environment and the.

Summary of effect sizes relating to feedback effects Number of Number of Number of Effect Variable meta-analyses studies effects size Cues 3 89 Feedback 74 4, 5, Reinforcement 1 19 19 Video or audio feedback 1 91 Computer-assisted instructional feedback.

In sports, anxious people are more easily distracted by task-irrelevant information and they adopt an ineffective visual search strategy (i.e., fixations of shorter duration on task-relevant areas. I came across a useful short article in the New York Times by Alina Tugend summarising research into the effects of ‘bad’ events (setbacks, losses, criticism) versus ‘good’ events (progress, gains, praise): Praise Is Fleeting, but Brickbats We is a quick summary of the main points that emerged, plus some thoughts about the implications for giving feedback.

Examples of inverted U curves regularly appear in all forms of research into stress effects on cognitive function.

These curves are often obtained empirically by plotting, for example, electric shock intensity, noise level, or hormone or neurotransmitter dose along the horizontal axis, and some aspect of task performance, for example the frequency of correct responses, along the vertical axis.

Goleman’s book "Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence" suggests a measure of the effect of positivity is looking at the length of time we can maintain a positive outlook after something good happens. In a study of participants with depression, control subjects with no mental illness were able to hold onto positive feelings for much longer.

Reducing Biases •Objective: This module is designed to help students reduce and even eliminate on-going biases that hamper successful decision-making. •Approach: The approach surveys an array of biases to help students recognize them, while outlining various techniques to help students reduce and hopefully even eliminate them.

Hindsight Bias. Processing irrelevant visual information sometimes activates incorrect response impulses. The engagement of cognitive control mechanisms to suppress these impulses and make proactive adjustments to reduce the future impact of incorrect impulses may rely on the integrity of frontal–basal ganglia circuitry.

While the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is a well-established effect in adult cognitive studies, there are only few studies that examine the influence of the ISE on the performance in a serial recall task of participants with differing ages.

As working memory capacity underlies developmental change, studies of age differences may. A coherence effect in multimedia learning: The case for minimizing irrelevant sounds in the design of multimedia messages. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET- Deci ) is a theory in Psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on internal motivation.

Specifically, CET is a sub-theory of Self-Determination Theory that focus on competence and autonomy while examining how intrinsic motivation is affected by external forces. CET uses three propositions to explain how [ ].

A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder. Some NF studies have tried to reduce the alpha asymmetry in an attempt to alleviate the depressive symptoms, suggesting that enhanced alpha oscillations effectively suppressed irrelevant information.

Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging.

However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an. information, rejection or refutation of the information, seeking support from those who agree with one’s belief, and attempting to persuade others to accept one’s belief.

In a study of the effect of belief disconfirmation on proselytizing, Festinger, Riecken, and Schachter (). Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one's prior beliefs or values.

People tend to unconsciously select information that supports their views, but ignoring non-supportive information. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position.

Some potential effects of feedback. One view of the effect of accuracy feedback on performance in basic cognitive tasks can be found in Starns and Ratcliff ().In their Experiment 2, participants saw a 10 × 10 grid of characters with some of the cells blank and others randomly filled by asterisks.

The presence of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is a fact widely confirmed by a more than abundant literature. The existence of these deficits cannot be ignored, given their presence even with stabilized symptoms and their proven correlation with the functioning of the subject.

The following chapter focuses on describing the main affected cognitive domains most frequently described in this. Some potential effects of feedback. One view of the effect of accuracy feedback on performance in basic cognitive tasks can be found in Starns and Ratcliff.

In their Experiment 2, participants saw a 10 × 10 grid of characters with some of the. Effects of the Different Irrelevant Background Speech Conditions on Serial Recall Memory Averaging Across all Serial Positions There was a clear trend that each background speech condition resulted in poorer serial recall performance than in the no speech condition; especially in the case of positive and negative speech (Figure 1).

Interactive effects of white noise and irrelevant information on recall from semantic memory, Scandinavian J. Psychol., Correspondence Address: D G Smith Defence Research and Development Canada - Toronto, Sheppard Avenue West. A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

Individuals create their own "subjective reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behavior in the world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical.

Working memory refers to the cognitive system responsible for the temporary storage and maintenance of information, but it remains controversial whether overlapping processes underlie the temporary retention of verbal and musical information such as words and tones.

Participants with little or no musical training (n = 22) and professional musicians (n = 21) were administered four memory tasks.

The contrast effect is a cognitive bias that distorts our perception of something when we compare it to something else, by enhancing the differences between them. This comparison can be either explicit or implicit, simultaneous or at separate points in time, and can apply to various traits, ranging from physical qualities, such as color and taste, to more abstract qualities, such as price and.

Consumer cognitive biases arise from judgment and decision-making due to their limitations in information processing. As one of the important cognitive biases, the anchoring effect plays a significant role in interfering with consumers’ risk perception.

With a stratified random approach, we collected survey data from consumers in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China. Free Online Library: The effect of task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor on working memory processing in mild cognitive impairment versus healthy controls: an exploratory fMRI study in female participants.(Research Article, Report) by "Behavioural Neurology"; Health, general Alzheimer's disease Comparative analysis Magnetic resonance imaging Short-term memory.

A psychologist by the name of Leon Festinger came up with the idea of cognitive dissonance way back in the late s, and did a heap of pioneering work in the field. Festinger suggested that we. Inability to focus attention in the face of irrelevant distractions is a common, and often rather frustrating, experience.

The consequences range from merely reducing the quality of life (e.g., not being able to focus while reading a good book, or even this article) to affecting the ability to study or to concentrate at work and causing one to be more prone to accidents (e.g., while driving).

James Oakes, Mark Johnson, James Xue, Scott Turner, Measuring and Reducing the Cognitive Load for the End Users of Complex Systems, Intelligent Systems and Applications, /_88, (), ().

THE goal of this review article is to examine the scientific evidence, both for and against, the old adage “use it or lose it.” This adage is widely promoted in the popular press and self-help literature, which is focused on maintaining and enhancing cognitive vitality in old age [e.g., ()].However, it is less clear from the scientific literature both whether and under what conditions this.

Information overload takes place when we are exposed to too much irrelevant information. This leads to an unnecessary overstimulation of the brain. It is no longer a secret that the human brain is amazing and has an unmatchable power that continues to keep scientists and neurologists interested.

The effect of positive and negative feedback on self-efficacy, cognitive trust and affective trust. Author: Jos Kampkuiper University of Twente P.O. BoxAE Enschede The Netherlands A theoretical model of feedback including self-efficacy, affective trust and.

In addition, inability to avoid attending to irrelevant events may also be induced by sleep-deprivation. By contrast, other studies have indicated that the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, specifically, sustained visual attention, are more global and bilateral in nature, as opposed to more lateralized deficit explanations.

Cognitive Load Theory []. Cognitive load theory is an important aspect when looking at technology in the educational setting. Cognitive load theory is a theory proposed by John Sweller and focuses on working memory and instruction.

Our working memory is only capable of processing a limited amount of information at one time When designing instructional tools working memory’s limitations is. This effect may be amplified under stress and produce hypersensitivity toward task-irrelevant information (Wegner, ; Wenzlaff & Wegner, ).

The study of attentional decrement under stress has focused heavily on specific attentional processes, most especially sustained attention (vigilance). Cognitive-behavior therapy acts on the premise that emotional memories are modified upon retrieval.

In narrative approach, the retrieval is used, but the objective is not to reduce anxiety thanks to be exposed to the memory in a safe environment. The final objective is to re-explain the past experiences with a new look.

playing exercises, performance feedback, and home practice exercises. Generally, the goals of AF-CBT treatment are to: • Reduce conflict and increase cohesion in family • Reduce use of coercion (hostility, anger, verbal aggression, threats) by the caregiver and other family members • Reduce use of physical force (aggressive.The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance have been studied through the use of parametric visual attention tasks.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of participants' brains who were involved in ball-tracking tasks of various difficulty levels were obtained.The aim of this randomized counterbalanced, 2 × 2 cross-over study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on cognitive and aerobic performance in adolescent active endurance athletes.

Ten active male endurance athletes (age = 16 ± years, height = ± m, body mass = ± kg) were familiarized to all experimental procedures on day 1.

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